The UVC reflective coating includes a polymer binder of a first volume having a first refractive index and an inorganic material of a second volume having a second refractive index at least 0.2 greater than the first refractive index, the second volume in ratio to the first volume such that the reflective coating is at or below critical pigment volume concentration (CVPC) (CPVC), wherein the reflective coating is configured to diffusely reflect at least 10% UVC. Zebra finches adjusted their flight velocity according to the window treatments (F2,26 = 3.78, p = 0.036) and decelerated as they approached the windows in all treatments (F2,26 = 90.46, p < 0.0001; Fig. I need it to be cheap and easy to form a reflector out of it. Further, both bird species slow their flight by approximately 25% when approaching windows treated with the BirdShades film, thereby reducing the force of collisions if they were to happen. This is performed at five different spots to regard the average value of the five spots as ‘refractive index of spherical particles’ in the example. Ultraviolet-reflective film applied to windows reduces the likelihood of collisions for two species of songbird. Here, we conducted controlled flight tunnel tests of the efficacy of the BirdShades window treatment in realistic daylight collision conditions. These resins may be used singly, or in a copolymer or a mixture of two kinds or more. For example, a metal oxide can include the metal with a single oxygen atom, two oxygen atoms, or three oxygen atoms. Fillers can include a type of pigment that serves to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the coating. A bird that might collide with a window during the daytime will experience daylight on the external surface of the window and artificial light (e.g., at a residential or commercial building) on the internal surface. 7). and will receive updates in the daily or weekly email digests if turned on. Of these collision events, 20% (3 of 15) were with the BirdShades-treated window and 80% (12 of 15) were with the control-treated window (Wilcoxon, Z = 2.02, N = 17 pairs, p = 0.043; Fig. The coating composition materials can be experimentally characterized for their UVC properties at a specific band of light within UVC for the application. Birds experienced natural daylight in the collision tunnel and the external surface of the windows experienced natural daylight during all trials (Fig. (ii) The coating layer of the white reflective film is immersed in organic solvent, peeled and taken off the white film, and thereafter crimped and slid onto a slide glass to thereby drop off the spherical particles from the coating layer. Further, we advocate for researchers and industry to collaborate in devising standards for assessing window collisions, and start this discussion by suggesting several important features that are not yet commonly incorporated into flight tunnel testing. 5). The UVC reflective coating includes a polymer binder of a first volume having a first refractive index and an inorganic material of a second volume having a second refractive index at least 0.2 greater than the first refractive index, the second volume in ratio to the first volume such that the reflective coating is at or below critical pigment volume concentration (CVPC) (CPVC), wherein the reflective coating is … [16.] The UVC reflective coating of anyone or all of the above embodiments, wherein the second refractive index is at least 0.5 greater than the first refractive index. Pringle, Todd Andrew (Reiles Acres, ND, US), SCHWEGMAN LUNDBERG & WOESSNER, P.A. We placed a fine mist net in front of the windows to prevent actual collisions. Specifically, we constructed a long flight tunnel in which the birds flew toward two windows in daylight. Kinds of the spherical particles according to the present invention are not particularly limited, and both organic and inorganic particles may be used. Previous approaches to UVC reflective coatings can include non-metal and metal approaches. We performed flight-collision tests with two song bird species, zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), that are known to be sensitive to shorter-wavelengths of light and hence be good candidate species to benefit from the BirdShades window treatment (Hart, 2001; Aidala et al., 2012). In order to allow the film thus biaxially oriented to have planarity and dimensional stability, the film is heat-fixed at a temperature of 150 to 230° C. in a tenter, gradually cooled uniformly and thereafter cooled to room temperature. "Following" is like subscribing to any updates related to a publication. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. We chose a repeated-measures experimental design as this accounts for among-bird variation in flight behavior that otherwise requires large sample sizes. [10.] [6.] As a result, when a coating layer containing spherical particles is coated on at least one side of a white film and specific conditions are made for a relation of refractive index difference between the contained spherical particles and a binder resin forming the coating layer and a pore state of such spherical particles, more effect of improving luminance in being used for the backlight may be confirmed than the case of the white film singly and such problems have been studied to be solved. This coating solution was coated on one side of a white film composed of a 250 μm porous biaxial oriented polyethylene terephthalate (“LUMIRROR” E6SL, manufactured by Toray Industries Inc.) by using a bar coater No. UV coatings can be formulated up to 100% solids so that they have no volatile component that contributes to pollution. The results of evaluating in Examples and Comparative Examples are shown in Table 1. We thank Sally Mullis and Lyra Swaddle for assistance with flight tunnel construction and data collection. The judgment of the presence of pores was performed by whether or not spots or a mottled pattern were observed in the particles in the observed image; the case where spots or a mottled pattern were observed or not observed was regarded as the presence of pores or the absence of pores, respectively.

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