(e) A lychee tree showing symptoms of dieback disease caused by the fungus Diplodia spp. (Eds. patches of infections coalesce and develop into large brown spots at fruit maturity. browning and desiccation of fruit (Schutte et al. They are adapted by developing leaves that repel water, and are called laurophyll or lauroid leaves. J Biopesticides 2:115–134, Wong LS, Jacobi KK, Giles JE (1991) The influence of hot benomyl dips on the appearance of cool stored lychee (, Wu B, Li X, Hu H, Liu A, Chen W (2011) Effect of chlorine dioxide on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of litchi fruit. possible to completely eliminate the fungus from the plant. fungus mostly attacks the leaves, panicles and fruits (Fig. Freshly-harvested litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn., L) fruit, of the cultivar 'Mauritius', were subjected to 5 min post-harvest dip treatments in aqueous solutions of: potassium metabisulphite, or Vapogard®, or Chitosan or combined treatments of: potassium metabisulphite + Vapogard®, or Chitosan + potassium metabisulphite, or Anolyte® + Triton X-100 + Chitosan, or ammonia + Carnauba wax. The field collected samples of litchi fruits, affected by fruit cracking, revealed that the exposed aril in the cracks was colonized by Aspergillus flavus. importance of postharvest micro-cracking. according to radiation dose (Ilangantileke et al. Manimekalai, R., Sathish Kumar, R., Soumya, V. P., & Thomas, G. V. (2010). In furtherance of this assignment, the Committee reviewed current epidemiologic data, the microbial ecology of the outbreak-associated organisms, and considered the current industry practices used for growing, harvesting, packing and distribution. Xuewu Duan, Yueming Jiang, Xinguo Su, Hai Liu, Yuebiao Li, Zhaoqi Zhang, Yonghua Zheng. Lychee is an average sized (10–15 m), evergreen, round-topped tree with, smooth, grey-coloured trunk. But, in some of the cultivars this treatment leads. Since it is a rich source of, minerals and other nutrients, it is also termed as a super, crop for human consumption is at risk due to the emergence of pest, (including algal and fungal) and certain animal pests. Phytoparasitica 35(5):507–518, Sivakumar D, Arrebola E, Korsten L (2008) Postharvest decay control and quality retention in, litchi (cv. 2000; Tongpamnak et al. 28, 640–646. Phytoparasitica, Am J Food Technol 1:173–178, Sun D, Liang G, Jianghui X, Lei X, Mo Y (2010) Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by, combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. The stem starts dying from tip downwards, oft, flowering stem. Fruit treatment can also be performed with ‘chitosan’. Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma diseases: A severe threat to agriculture. The changing dynamics of pests and the emerging new pests and diseases may become a hindrance to profitable litchi cultivation and will have socioeconomic impact on litchi growing areas. Such kind of genetic uniformity. Effect, Sonn.) Australasian Plant Disease Notes, J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80(1):32–38, Sivakumar D, Korsten L, Zeeman K (2007a) Postharvest management on quality retention of Litchi during storage. However, soil in Fijian province is very high in clay, poorly drained and acidic in reaction (Winks et al. In fact litchi is generally adapted to various soil types via alluvial sands, loams, heavy clay, organic soil and calcareous soil with 30% lime and rock files (Chapman 1984a). Grading system depends greatly upon the market require-, shady and temperature-controlled packing houses (Holcrof. 14, 53–61. Eggs are creamy white in colour and oval to flat, ). It can also infect branches and bark. 2002; Western and Southern blotting techniques were used to confirm, Polyacrylamide in-gel assay was used to analyse the chitinase activity. 50, 234–235. Depending, upon the market requirements, transportation of lychee can be done by land, sea and, air. 0000016303 00000 n All rights reserved. China is the largest producer of lychee in the world followed by India and Taiwan. Sci Hortic 47:89–97, Zhang DL, Quantick PC (1997) Effects of chitosan coating on enzymatic browning and decay, Zhang Z, Pang X, Xuewu D, Ji Z, Jiang Y (2001) Role of peroxidase in anthocyanin degradation in, litchi fruit pericarp. Acta Hortic 558:175–184, Menzel C (2002) The lychee crop in Asia and the pacific. Bedana). Their propagation in other areas has not been beneficial because the quality of the same cultivar is often affected. Some, The insects feed upon the leaf surface, and as a, ). There are two reports available on the production of transge, ) transferred a gene named ‘rice chitinase’, ) transformed lychee with salt-tolerant Gly I and II genes in, ). Larvae bore through the xylem and make tunnels of, up to 60 cm long. When the fruits are ripe, the larva penetrates directly. School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, the attractive colour of its pericarp and exotic flavour. SA Litchi Growers Assoc Yearb 11:26–29. Influence of ethephon (2-choloroethyl phosphonic acid) plus K 2SO4 on the Process of Ripening and In... First Report of Dolabra nepheliae on Rambutan and Litchi in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Crop Prot 30:354–359, concentrations on physiology and quality of, litchi fruit in storage. Int J Postharvest Technol Innov 1(1):48–61, Kumar M, Prakash NS, Prasad US, Sarin NB (2006) A novel approach of regeneration from nodal explants of field grown lychee (, Kumar V, Kumar A, Nath V (2011) Emerging pests and diseases of litchi (, Kumar D, Mishra DS, Chakraborty B, Kumar P (2013) Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage. Page 306 in: The New Rural Industries. J Food Sci, Lemmer D, Kruger FJ (2000) Factors influencing SO, Mauritius and McLean’s red litchi fruit. 2011). pp 1-26 | (d) Leaf necrosis caused by C. gloeosporioides. Crop Prot 27(8):1208–1214, Song L, Jiang Y, Gao H, Li C, Liu H, You Y, Sun J (2006) Effects of adenosine triphosphate on browning and quality of harvested litchi fruit. Fungal pycnidia are produced in dead shoots (Mcmillan, Leaf blight is one of the important lychee diseases.

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