Alkaline lakes, also known as soda lakes, generally have a pH level between 9 and 12. At a higher pH, this bicarbonate system will shift to the left, and CO32- will pick up a free hydrogen ion. This is done by taking the negative logarithm of the H+ concentration (-log(H+)). Fish begin to die when pH falls below 4.0 ¹². The bodies of these animals are preserved by the sodium carbonate, much like the ancient Egyptian mummification process. In a eutrophic lake, other organisms living in the water will become stressed, even if pH levels remained within the optimum range. Welcome to a new premium bottled water experience, fusing creativity and design to serve as a source of inspiration and hydration. This creates a eutrophic lake, rich in nutrients and plant life but low in dissolved oxygen concentrations. Acid runoff depletes the water’s alkalinity and lowers pH below optimum levels. As the level of hydrogen ions increases, metal cations such as aluminum, lead, copper and cadmium are released into the water instead of being absorbed into the sediment. Additional carbonate materials beyond this can make neutral water slightly basic. PET bottles have a #1 recycling symbol on the bottom of the bottle. While ideal pH levels for fish are 7-8 (fish blood has a pH of 7.4) ²⁰, most fish can adapt to the pH level of their environment (6.0-9.0) as long as there are no dramatic fluctuations. pH is logarithmic, meaning that a decrease by 0.1 is equivalent to nearly a 30% increase in acidity ³⁵. Ill effects due to acidification are more pronounced in saltwater fish due to their adaptation to a higher pH. Natural precipitation, both rain and snow, has a pH near 5.6 due to contact with CO2 and other atmospheric influences. While alkalinity and pH are closely related, there are distinct differences. The acidity of the surrounding environment can also affect the pH of water. Our LIFEWTR products have a "Best taste date", typically stamped on the shoulder of our bottles. HCO3– <=> CO32- + H+. Most grasses and legumes prefer soils with a pH of 4.5-7.0, so the slight acidity of rain can benefit carbonate soils ²³. Lower pH levels increase the risk of mobilized toxic metals that can be absorbed, even by humans, and levels above 8.0 cannot be effectively disinfected with chlorine, causing other indirect risks ¹⁴. These minerals often form columns of mineral deposits, known as tufa columns. Oceanic organisms like clownfish and coral require higher pH levels. While some african cichlids thrive at high pH levels (up to 9.5), most fish cannot tolerate them. Aquatic species are not the only ones affected by pH. However, changes in pH can also affect alkalinity levels (as pH lowers, the buffering capacity of water lowers as well) ⁶. pH and alkalinity are directly related when water is at 100% air saturation ⁹. However, at pH levels over 9, the equation reverses and ammonia is released into the water ²². LIFEWTR is purified water, pH balanced with electrolytes added for taste. Will the water taste differently in rPET bottles? Alkalinity does not refer to alkalis as alkaline does ⁶. If the pH of water is too high or too low, the aquatic organisms living within it will die. Alkalinity can be reported as mg/L or microequivalents per liter (meq/L). LIFEWTR is a premium water that is pH balanced with electrolytes added for taste. Low pH levels can encourage the solubility of heavy metals ¹². The alkalinity of water also plays an important role in daily pH levels. The alkalinity of water varies due to the presence of dissolved salts and carbonates, as well as the mineral composition of the surrounding soil. The majority of aquatic creatures prefer a pH range of 6.5-9.0, though some can live in water with pH levels outside of this range. Some states, such as Alaska, are attempting to maintain a pH standard for water quality. We feature the captivating work of some of the boldest and most transformative artists of today. The electrolytes added to LIFEWTR for taste bring the pH of the water closer to neutral, in the range of 6.4 to 7.4. Harmful effects become noticeable when the pH of water falls below 5.0 or rise above 9.6. In non-volcanic areas, acid lakes can also develop after acidic deposition from events such as acid rain, pollution or acid runoff from mining operations ³³. The process of photosynthesis by algae and plants uses hydrogen, thus increasing pH levels ¹⁰. If a body of water has a high alkalinity, it can limit pH changes due to acid rain, pollution or other factors ⁸. As a part of our Performance with Purpose vision, PepsiCo is focused on reducing our environmental impact while growing our business. The pH of rain can also be lowered due to volcanic ash, sulfate-reducing bacteria in wetlands, airborne particulates from wildfires and even lightning ¹⁹. LIFEWTR is avaialble in 700mL, 1 liter, 1.5 liter, 20oz and 500ml & 1L multipacks. pH can also fluctuate with precipitation (especially acid rain) and wastewater or mining discharges ¹³. This means that acids and bases can cancel each other out, as shown in the water equation to the right. The pH of LIFEWTR is in the range of 6.4 to 7.4. Acid lakes usually develop near volcanoes, where sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide, hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide can leach into the water ³². Ammonia, NH3, is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms, and as pH increases, the mortality rates rise with the NH3 concentration. As mentioned in the section “Carbon Dioxide and pH”, additional CO2 increases the number of hydrogen ions in the water, reducing pH: CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 … H2CO3 <=> (H+) + HCO3⁻. Acid rain requires a pH below 5.0 ²¹. LIFEWTR bottles provide a beautiful canvas for art and design, featuring rotating label motifs created by emerging and developing artists, whose work will serve as a spark of creativity and dose of inspiration. The alkalinity of water or a solution is the quantitative capacity of that solution to buffer or neutralize an acid. LIFEWTR is now available in the U.K, Canada and Mexico and is expected to launch in other global markets on a rolling basis, starting in 2020. WHO ARE THE ARTISTS LIFEWTR IS FEATURING ON THE BOTTLES? As such, soluble bases can be described as “basic” or “alkaline”. Mining operations (particularly coal) produce acid runoff and acidic groundwater seepage if the surrounding soil is poorly buffered ²². However, as CO2 levels increase around the world, the amount of dissolved CO2 also increases, and the equation will be carried out from left to right. Due to this influence, H+ and OH- are related to the basic definitions of acids and bases. Early next year LIFEWTR will be packaged in rPET (recycled polyethylene terephthalate). LIFEWTR bottles have a recycling number 1 on the bottom of the bottle and are generally recycled in all communities that have recycling programs.The number 1 located inside the recycling symbol at the bottom of the LIFEWTR bottle is the resin identification code that classifies the type of plastic used. Due to the presence of carbonates, alkalinity is more closely related to hardness than to pH (though there are still distinct differences). For saltwater fish, the pH of water should remain between 7.5 and 8.5 ⁹. They are lightweight, virtually unbreakable, have low permeability, which reduces carbon dioxide loss in carbonated beverages, and are recyclable. This reduces the partial pressure of oxygen, reducing its saturation levels and contributing to hypoxic (low O2) conditions ³⁵. LIFEWTR rPET bottles are made of 100% recycled plastic and are 100% recyclable. These chemicals can come from agricultural runoff, wastewater discharge or industrial runoff. As an operational definition, an acid is a substance that will decrease pH when added to pure water. As the concentrations of heavy metals increase, their toxicity also increases. Seawater has a pH around 8.2, though this can range between 7.5 to 8.5 depending on its local salinity. Much like their alkaline counterparts, acid lakes have no outlet except evaporation, concentrating the sulfates and acids. There are many factors that can affect pH in water, both natural and man-made. Call 888.426.2151 or email [email protected], Conductivity, Salinity & Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids & Water Clarity, Solar Radiation & Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Measuring Turbidity, TSS, and Water Clarity, Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydropower Facilities, Monitoring Scour at Bridges and Offshore Structures. ARE THESE BOTTLES RECYCLABLE? Photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition all contribute to pH fluctuations due to their influences on CO2 levels. The recommended pH range for most fish is between 6.0 and 9.0 with a minimum alkalinity of 20 mg/L, with ideal CaCO3 levels between 75 and 200 mg/L ²⁰.


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