0000010679 00000 n At the same time, when other measures are ineffective or not cost-effective, IVM makes judicious use of chemical methods of vector control, such as indoor residual sprays, space spraying, and use of chemical larvicides and adulticides; these reduce disease transmission by shortening or interrupting the lifespan of vectors. xref These include environmental management strategies that can reduce or eliminate vector breeding grounds altogether through improved design or operation of water resources development projects as well as use of biological controls (e.g. 0000003020 00000 n Trials using insecticide-treated bednets in some malaria-endemic African countries have shown very substantial reductions in child and infant mortality (1, 2). 0000001630 00000 n %���� 34 0 obj 0000048749 00000 n Multiplication by a Scalar. endobj stream These are called vector quantities or simply vectors. << /S /GoTo /D (Outline1.1.4) >> 6 0 obj 36 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 38 /H [ 1240 390 ] /L 516903 /E 131340 /N 8 /T 516065 >> endobj xref 36 40 0000000016 00000 n water resource, irrigation and agriculture, can help identify potential impacts on vector-borne disease upstream of major policy decisions so effective action may be taken. 2 0 obj 70 0 obj<> endobj /Filter /FlateDecode << /S /GoTo /D (Outline1.2.5) >> depletion of biodiversity) and adverse side-effects on public health from the excessive use of chemicals in vector control. New strategies for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases are emphasizing "Integrated Vector Management" – as an approach that reinforces linkages between health and environment, optimizing benefits to both. We denote v by or . 42 0 obj 0000023316 00000 n 0000003546 00000 n PDF | Scitation is the ... My History of Vector A nalysis did not f are ve ry well with the t wo people just mentioned, nor did it until now lead to any inv itations to speak. 41 0 obj Links to WHO/UNEP portals are in Section 9. History of Vectors. The term vector comes from the Latin word vectus, meaning “to carry.”This leads nicely to the geometric representation of a vector in as a directed line segment from the origin IVM strategies are designed to achieve the greatest disease control benefit in the most cost-effective manner, while minimizing negative impacts on ecosystems (e.g. endobj The parallelogram law for the addition of vectors is so intuitive that its origin is unknown. 0000011118 00000 n I The angle between vectors a= (3,1,5) and b= (2,1,3) I cos = p 3 2+1 1+5 3 (32+12+52) p (22+12+32) = 22 (35 )14 = 0:994 I = 6:3 Example of scalar products in physics I Work done on a body by a force through distance dx I dW = F:dx I Only the component of force parallel to displacement does work. endobj 0000004501 00000 n <]>> However, in many settings, the use of IVM strategies has yielded sustainable reductions in disease and transmission rates. 0000003802 00000 n 3 The vectors a and f) extend from the origin 0 to the points A and B. Links to selected resources of other organizations, e.g. endobj 1 Show by vector methods, that is, without using components, that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 2 Show by vector methods that the line which joins one vertex of a parallelogram to the middle point of an opposite side trisects the diagonal. 2. 0000001214 00000 n endobj (2.2 Vector Product) At the same time, when other measures are ineffective or not cost-effective, IVM makes judicious use of, IVM is not a panacea. It may have appeared in a now lost work of Aristotle (384--322 B.C. 0000104272 00000 n In their modern form, vectors appeared late in the 19th century when Josiah Willard Gibbs and Oliver Heaviside (of the United States and Britain, respectively) independently developed vector analysis to express the new laws of electromagnetism discovered by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. vectors were probably de ned as ‘quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction such as displacements, velocities and forces’ as opposed to scalars, such as mass, temperature and pressure, which only have magnitude. 13 0 obj Sign up to join this community. ), and it is in the Mechanics of Heron (first century A.D.) of Alexandria.It was also the first corollary in Isaac Newton’s (1642--1727) Principia Mathematica (1687). IVM is not a panacea. 0000002923 00000 n 0 (2.1.2 Angle between two vectors) 0000072059 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 1 Vectors in 2D and 3D 1.1 De nition of vectors Many times in engineering, one wants to model quantities that are not adequately described by a single number, like temperature or pressure, but rather by a direction and magnitude. The directory provides links to web-accessible resources in categories of relevance to policymaking. The most deadly vector borne disease, Malaria, kills over 1.2 million people annually, mostly African children under the age of five. 3 0 obj These are called vector quantities or simply vectors. A vector is represented geometrically by an oriented segment (arrow), which is characterized by length (also called absolute value, or modulus, or magnitude of a vector) and direction. Vectors 1.1 Nature of physics Mathematics. 9 0 obj United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, and other United Nations Agencies, Health and Environment Linkages Initiative - HELI. 0000001147 00000 n 0000043198 00000 n 0000004950 00000 n 0000004452 00000 n IVM provides a framework for improved personal protection/preventive strategies that combine environmental management and chemical tools for new synergies; e.g. 26 0 obj endobj %��������� (2.2.2 Vector product of unit vectors) %PDF-1.3 endobj H�|�Ko����W̒\h���2�� ���dax!�TLC" R����~ԝ�*�o�̩�gzf������3���>_t����E�Eew��}�������*����������߷�;�+��z����������o�/�{zy޾�l�~�����v{�[���3�\�a���j�T��~�?~~z~*�����K���1m^���������wu6�jo`6u:u������o[Q[ �g���� ��n��Co׵�f�ʷ�EKc���k�ڝ�'D��k�����������OϏ�v�N[�o���m�����>>l�?����[email protected]�Tͬ9�����u{���������۴��__��m��m��� xx|~��x4F���h�dž�SRn������e*�%us(����f�8�Q���V��n��gi�]E����='j#�~�=/� �¶gR M�T�䪘ʐ�;���& �6Wj��P!�'oܕ�j���XA4%eX�0Td�K�TŐA�iL���mC�׃ʰ�n�i�O�Z�K���cUO����ә��Q��K��'.,$���\�Xq���$� 5,���r3�ت�X���P�Ab8cі�w��Z"T�S]��'ԊP"Q ����8E�i��4t����U�T:K���SB��{�j/a5����7��ٱ��*1L�SÒ*n�1�,):K�!�i���f;W���SWi,��љ�m�M]%�H%&������T���1P�TB�5�����,VJ���De�尔:�N���#������(G'�S �J'�e�@5*�-T����b�,��zVX#�0�J�wb��a�(-��N,�y`�Di1Q�a�H)1RJ��X�����Rb�(/��gTڳ��2X�۱L�MB���b)�Ē�V�TSy�)�s�F!RMe��wb��+D��V�T#�H��X�s�z1R^�TUY,�y`�Hy1RU%��1����b���(G�l(��oܩV̓^�ho��*��F̓a��d���'�]�:���l�(� endobj 0000023897 00000 n 0000003155 00000 n 0000003319 00000 n depletion of biodiversity) and adverse side-effects on public health from the excessive use of chemicals in vector control. endobj 25 0 obj 0000002502 00000 n endobj Examples of vector quantities are: Force: it has a magnitude, the strength, and a direction. Case-studies of IVM experiences, or relevant strategies, 3. William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879) History of Vectors A.Complex Numbers B.Quaternions C.Grassman Linear Algebra D.Gibbs Vectors 2 A. Since only the magnitude and direction of a vector matter, any directed segment may be replaced by one of the same length and direction but beginning at another point, such as the origin of a coordinate system. Rather than relying on a single method of vector control, IVM stresses the importance of first understanding the local vector ecology and local patterns of disease transmission, and then choosing the appropriate vector control tools, from the range of options available. 21 0 obj (2.2.3 Vector product in components) endobj ��v|��W��u��I_>�f7���t����v�J��'��Mu57�P����. IVM also supports effective, accessible and affordable disease diagnosis and treatment within the framework of a multi-disease control approach. endobj development agencies, academic/research institutions and civil society, are in Section 10. 0000085526 00000 n Vectors may be visualized as directed line segments whose lengths are their magnitudes. (2.3 Examples) Dengue fever, together with associated dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), is the world's fastest growing vector borne disease. << /S /GoTo /D (Outline2.4.10) >> IVM requires a multi-sectoral approach to vector-borne disease control. 0000003098 00000 n However, in many settings, the use of IVM strategies has yielded sustainable reductions in disease and transmission rates. 0000017394 00000 n 0000054500 00000 n 0000037132 00000 n %%EOF


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