2020 Sep 2;10(9):360. doi: 10.3390/metabo10090360. A yield of 12 g/L was obtained from a strain of Gluconobacter frateurii (Jakob et al., 2012). Compared to commercial dextran of a similar molecular mass produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, dextran produced by G. oxydans has a higher degree of branching and displays lower viscosity. To this end, Pariza, Gillies, Kraak‐Ripple, Leyer, and Smith (2015) proposed a decision tree that could be used for the safety evaluation of both non‐QPS and QPS strains (Pariza et al., 2015) (Figure 8). L‐sorbose dehydrogenase (SDH) was identified in the mutant strain UV10. Other technologically relevant aspects, such as EPS biosynthesis and their role in the bioconversion of products useful in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, such as ascorbic acid, are also considered. EPSs, including levan, have particularly been exploited in the bakery industry, and, through their application with sourdough technology, represent a natural alternative to commercial hydrocolloids for the enhancement of both conventional wheat‐containing baked goods and gluten‐free products (Lynch, Coffey, & Arendt, 2018b). As shown in Figure 7D, as little as three periplasmic oxidation steps are required to convert sorbitol to vitamin C–mediated by GLDH, SDH, and SNDHai–all of which are endogenous G. oxydans enzymes (Pappenberger & Hohmann, 2016). To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. 2014 Jun;40(4):713-8. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2013.09.003. A disadvantage of this rapid method is that the high airflow leads to significant stripping of the volatile components from the original substrate, producing a more organoleptically limited product. Ethyl alcohol is oxidized to acetic acid: The acetic acid thus formed can be further oxidized to CO2 and H2O. It appears that microbial food cultures with a history of safe use in food are considered as traditional food ingredients and are legally permitted for use in food in the European Union without premarket authorization. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. The effect of kurosu, a Japanese rice vinegar on the proliferation of a number of human cancer cell lines, including colon adenocarcinoma, lung carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, bladder carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma cells has been studied. The rate of gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption in the small intestine determine the rate that glucose enters the blood (Chen et al., 2016). The vinegar melanoidins (4.5 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the lipid peroxidation during simulated gastric digestion of meat. Other organic acids, for example, lactic acid, are not as effective; lactic acid cannot easily enter cells at a pH > 3.8 (its pKa) as it exists primarily in its dissociated form. These ions are toxic to the cell and interfere with cellular processes such as enzyme activity, DNA replication and transcription, and protein expression, therefore effecting the normal growth of the microorganism (Chen, Chen, Giudici, & Chen, 2016; Russell & Diez‐Gonzalez, 1997). Acetic acid is a building block for the biosynthesis of acetyl‐coenzyme A (acetyl‐CoA). Olijve and Kok (1979) found that high glucose concentrations (0.9 to 2.7 g/L) led to rapid GA accumulation, while at lower concentrations the assimilation of glucose and metabolism in the PPP was favored (Olijve & Kok, 1979). To prepare a basic kombucha ferment, tea leaves are steeped in boiling water, 5% to 15% w/v of sucrose is added, and the mixture is brought to room temperature. The patients received ear irrigation with 2% acetic acid solution three times per week (3 weeks, followed for up to 3 years). Factors such as glucose concentration, pH, and the level of oxygenation affect the yield and ratio of GA to ketogluconates (García‐García et al., 2017; Saichana et al., 2015). In addition, it has been found that, in Gluconobacter oxydans, the cytochrome bd quinol oxidase is particularly active at low pH (Hanke et al., 2012). Kieran M. Lynch and Emanuele Zannini wrote the manuscript with critical input and corrections are done by Elke K. Arendt. From a legal standpoint, with a GRAS determination the onus and liability are placed on the food company, as a GRAS designation is issued based on evidence evaluated by the food manufacturer and the panel of experts engaged by that company.


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