Risk of skin irritation was informed with informed consent. The normal physiology is to keep body temperature within a narrow safe range in spite of large variations in environmental temperatures [1]. Background. For details, see Table 6. Covariant Variables. SantaMedical 2 In 1 Professional Clinical Large LCD Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer (Forehead, Surface, and Room) is a safe and effective device which measures temperature from a distance without getting affected by ambient temperature and no hazard of transmission of infection. Objective. Conclusion and Recommendations. Compare body temperature between 10 min glass mercury and digital thermometers among under-5 children with febrile illness at axillary site in Axum Saint Mary Hospital. Inclusion criteria were children under 5 years of age with FI visiting Axum St. Mary Hospital particularly under-5 OPD at the time of data collection. The tool included Part I: demographic preforma and Part II: recording temperature result and observation checklist. Fever is also associated with malaria, dysentery, and diarrhea in children. Mean differences between comparison groups. Similarly as the generalizability was to the devices, study area may not have effect. Examination of visual acuity was given for data collectors. SantaMedical 2 In 1 Professional Clinical Large LCD Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer (Forehead, Surface, and Room) is a safe and effective device which measures temperature from a distance without getting affected by ambient temperature and no hazard of transmission of infection. N. Rahman, F. B. Kasem, M. R. Islam, M. R. Islam, R. Sultana, and A. Matin, “Comparison between mercury and liquid crystal forehead thermometers for measurment of body temperature,”, B. J. Holtzclaw, “Circadian rhythmicity and homeostatic stability in thermoregulation,”, A. Wikipedia, “National Statistics-population-2011 by town and sex,” 2011. Many of the infectious diseases assessed, classified, and treated using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) guidelines have fever as a secondary cause. 2 GMT and DT were excluded. Change ), This is a text widget, which allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. ( Log Out /  In these patients, the cause of the fever is treated and fever is not used in decision making. All data collectors (B.S. Available at www.allheart.com the device is a marvel to use. It may decrease misdiagnosis of febrile illness in under-5 children related to inaccuracy of body temperature measurement due to devices type. Comparison and Differences. Also, the temperature reading of infrared thermometer is not affected by ambient temperature or warm fluid intake by the individual which is not the case with digital thermometers. To determine statistically significant difference, a paired -tests was used. R. Dolkar, S. Kapoor, N. V. Singh, and V. Suri, “A comparative study on the recording of temperature by the clinical mercury thermometer and digital thermometer,”, G. I. Gasim, I. R. Musa, M. T. Abdien, and I. Adam, “Accuracy of tympanic temperature measurement using an infrared tympanic membrane thermometer,”, I. Pušnik and A. Miklavec, “Dilemmas in measurement of human body temperature,”, T. Schmitz, N. Bair, M. Falk, and C. Levine, “A comparison of five methods of temperature measurement in febrile intensive care patients,”, L. McCallum and D. Higgins, “Measuring body temperature,”, L. S. Smith, “ReexaMting age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults—a comparison study,”, E. Bridges and K. Thomas, “Noninvasive measurement of body temperature in critically ill patients,”, H. M. Rosenthal and A. Leslie, “Measuring temperature of NICU patients—a comparison of three devices,”, L. Khorshid, İ. Eşer, A. Zaybak, and Ü. Yapucu, “Comparing Mercury-in-glass, tympanic and disposable thermometers in measuring body temperature in healthy young people,”, A. Sganga, R. Wallace, E. Kiehl, T. Irving, and L. Witter, “A comparison of four methods of normal newborn temperature measurement,”, S. Uslu, H. Ozdemir, A. Bulbul et al., “A comparison of different methods of temperature measurements in sick newborns,”, G. G. Arslan, I. Eser, and L. Khorshid, “Analysis of the effect of lying on the ear on body temperature measurement using a tympanic thermometer,”, S. P. Davies, J. Y. Kassab, A. J. Thrush, and P. H. Smith, “A comparison of mercury and digital clinical thermometers,”, L. Lawson, E. J. Bridges, I. Ballou et al., “Accuracy and precision of noninvasive temperature measurement in adult intensive care patients,”. Normal body temperature is around 37°C (98.6°F) but varies during the day. For further details, see Table 3. This study will also be used as a base line data for further research on comparison of temperature measuring devices related topics. Furthermore, the mean difference observed between 10 min GMT and DT was not clinically significant, so no compensation for the differences was needed. Statistical significance () and clinical significance (°C) were used in the analyses. School of Nursing, College of Health Science, Axum University, P.O. But one study found that GMT and DT were clinically and statistically significant with mean difference of 0.278 and [38]. Since rectal temperature measurements are relatively more time-consuming, invasive, uncomfortable, less hygienic, and unacceptable in many cultures, and oral temperature is unhygienic and difficult in children, axillaries measurements have been the method of choice in many countries [6–8]. Device type (GMT, DT)and dwelling time of GMT (5 min and 10 min) were the study variables. Box 1010, Axum, Ethiopia, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, health professionals should use DT for measuring body temperature in under-5 febrile illnesses as it has no clinical significance difference with GMT and has some advantages over GMT (being easy to read, having fast result, and being environmentally friendly) [. ", Advances in Nursing, vol. See Table 2. After this pretest, some modifications were incorporated. Figure 5 shows 10 min GMT was higher in 75 individuals than DT. Their variation in temperature is not likely to change any clinical decision. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries which use both GMT and DT in measuring body temperature with the uncertainty of the device and dwelling time in their capability of detecting hyperthermia and hypothermia. Latman states that “the current generation of electronic, digital clinical thermometers, in general, may not be sufficient to replace the traditional glass/mercury thermometers” [49]. Many decisions concerning the investigation and treatment of children may be based on the results of temperature measurement alone [12, 13]. 10 min GMT and DT was agreed on in 88 of 98 measurements (For further details, see Table 8). The Study was conducted from November/2013 to May/2014. Since it is axillary, it is safe and measurements were taken at OPD during assessment. The study was carried out in Axum, city of northern Ethiopia, 1024 Km north of Addis Ababa and 241 Km far from Mekelle which is the capital city of Tigray region, located in the Central Zone of Tigray Region near the base of the Adwa mountains and surrounded by La’ilay Maychew woreda. Limited researches have addressed whether the thermometer correctly identifies patients with hyperthermia or hypothermia. A total one hundred and one study subjects were included in the study, but ninety-eight (97%) of them were analyzed. M. S. Chand, “A comparative study on difference in the manual and electronic recording of vital signs in patients admitted in CTVS-ICU and CCU of advanced cardiac center at PGIMER,” vol. First, the data were entered and coded to Epi info version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 21 of Window 7 for analyses. The infrared thermometer is the new in thing in the market. Mean differences of 10 min GMT and DT in relation to sociodemographic and other factors were done. Maintenance of body temperature occurs through the integration of multiple body systems that interact to maintain a balance between heat loss and generation. The dependent variables were accuracy of body temperature result. Bland-Altman plot of 10 min glass mercury and digital thermometers. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Febrile illnesses are the most common leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-5 children which needs accurate measurement of body temperature. The false low and false high result related to accuracy of thermometer device and dwelling time may lead to misdiagnosis and treatment. In Tigray region 16.9% of the population is under-5 years and Axum town have around 7,490 numbers of children less than five years according to city administration report in 2012 [34]. It took 15 min to take all measurements for one study subject. Due to inconsistencies in both research methods and clinical practice [31, 32], nurses are challenging in selecting the measurement method that is most appropriate for a patient and provides the most accurate and precise approximation of core temperature [33]. Even the little documented studies have large discrepancy and health professionals are in debate.


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