Thus, critical feminist theories challenge dominant assumptions and practices of gender in ways that foster more equal and egalitarian forms of communication and social structures in society. Marx, in two of his most well-known works, The Communist Manifesto and Capital, argued that working class laborers were being oppressed by those in power, specifically the owners of manufacturing plants. His cutting-edge film “Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes” looks at the Hip-Hop industry from a critical perspective, focusing on how it enables sexism against women while keeping men in narrowly defined gendered roles. Macroscopic researchers dont really care whether, They look at things like Have media disrupted, Some cultural theories are referred to as, A critical theory raises questions about the way, Minimal Effects Theory suggests that media power, Only some people are affected under certain, Media mostly reinforce social changes that are, The Media Effects (Postpositivist) Research, Identify independent dependent variables, Find empirical evidence of causal power of media, Look for changes in quality of experience that, Develop theories about changes in experience and, Do research to see if heavy iPod users have fewer, Focus on use and experience of music via iPod, Talk to heavy iPod users and nonusers about music, Critical Theory is more likely to combine, Media should be used to achieve valued goals, We should assess current media use to see if, We should criticize problematic uses and actively, Western civilization involves key values and, Democracy in which all citizens are equally, A culturally diverse society in which there is, Consumption of products based on real needs, Cultural Theory usually focuses on media content, It can be based on simple curiosity about why, It often is concerned about why different social, It isnt concerned about the value of different, Grounded in ideal values egalitarianism, mass, Elites use media to indoctrinate masses with, Change is only possible with a revolution that, It is possible to challenge and overcome elite, Elite ideology can be countered with populist, Media literacy can teach masses to criticize, Challenged by the rise of Nazism in Germany and, Media technology itself is problematic since it, Media disrupt daily routines central to civilized, Nazis use media to replace civilized high culture, Good literature (High Culture) is central to, Textual analysis and literary criticism can, Universal appreciation of High Culture would, Pioneered by Raymond Williams who reassessed, Stuart Hall - Media Reception Research Theory of, Media are a pluralistic public forum in which, Elite advantages can be overcome by studying how, Focus on how nonelite groups resist elite, Capitalist elites are more interested in earning, The rise of centralized, privately owned media is, Culture becomes a commodity and is packaged in, Mass entertainment dominates at the expense of, News is written from elite perspectives and is, Alternate ways to structure and fund media are, Reinterpretation of British and Canadian Theory, Minimal effects research is too focused on, Media are central agents in the rituals that make, News reassures us about continuity of social, TV allows routine escape from daily problems, Focus on media technology not on the content, Looked at the role of media over great time and, Speculated about impact of media on culture and. Thus, this term translates into “after just now”—an idea that can be difficult to wrap our heads around. - Nationalism Lecture 4: Theories II Prof. Lars-Erik Cederman Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Center for Comparative and International Studies (CIS). The drive towards the development of mass communication theories. At their best, critical theories have the potential to enact large-scale social change for both large and small groups of people. In addition, postmodernism, feminism, and postcolonialism have greatly influenced how critical theories have grown and expanded to challenge a greater number of social power structures.

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